Female circumcision (revision)

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Proposal to change Female circumcision to Female genital mutilation


Sources found, December 2019:

Female genital mutilation/cutting, U.S. assistance to combat this harmful practice abroad is limited: report to Minority Leader, U.S. Senate (2016). Washington, D.C.: United States Government Accountability Office.

Brock, Marieke (Eds.) (2018). Historical overview of U.S. policy and legislative responses to honor-based violence, forced marriage, and female genital mutilation/cutting. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice.

Stein, Karin, Chou, Doris (2016). WHO guidelines on the management of health complications from female genital mutilation. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.

Cloward, Karisa (2016). When norms collide: local responses to activism against female genital mutilation and early marriage. New York: Oxford University Press.

Julios, Christina (2019). Female genital mutilation and social media. Abingdon, Oxon ; New York, NY : Routledge.

Bradley, Tamsin (Eds.) (2011). Women, violence and tradition: taking FGM and other practices to a secular state. London: Zed Books.

Walker, Alice, Parmar, Pratibha (1996). Warrior marks: female genital mutilation and the sexual blinding of women. San Diego: Harcourt Brace.

International Day of Zero Tolerance for Female
Genital Mutilation, 6 February



WHO An update on WHO’s work on female genital mutilation (FGM)  https://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/fgm/rhr_11_18/en/

U.S. Code § 116.Female genital mutilation


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